is Scaling Concrete? (Figure 1)
When concrete scales the finished surface flakes and peels off.
Generally it starts as localized small patches which later may
merge and extend to expose large areas. Scaling exposes the aggregate
and may involve loss of 1/8 - 3/8" of the surface mortar.
In some cases deterioration of concrete goes much beyond that
. Causes of scaling can be (1) use of non-air-entrained concrete,
(2) application of deicing salts, (3) improper placement in working
of concrete while installing, (4) insufficient or no curing, or
(5) not using proper curing compound, (6) freezing and thawing
of moisture penetration, (7) The use of too much water content
in the concrete while placing.